Bone fusion

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Factors influencing fusion rate:


  1. postoperative anemia (inhibit)
  2. history of smoking (inhibit)
  3. steroids (inhibit)
  4. radiation (inhibit)
  5. bone wax (inhibit)
  6. nonsteroidals (inhibit)


  1. estrogen and testosterone (promotes)
  2. electrical stimulation (better fusion rates)
  3. bone morphogenetic protein and osteogenic protein-1 (Op-1)(promotes)
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