Bone fusion

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Factors influencing fusion rate:

Inhibition:

  1. postoperative anemia (inhibit)
  2. history of smoking (inhibit)
  3. steroids (inhibit)
  4. radiation (inhibit)
  5. bone wax (inhibit)
  6. nonsteroidals (inhibit)

Promotes:

  1. estrogen and testosterone (promotes)
  2. electrical stimulation (better fusion rates)
  3. bone morphogenetic protein and osteogenic protein-1 (Op-1)(promotes)
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