Cardiac tamponade

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(obstruction to inflow)

  1. Causes: infectious pericarditis, recent open heart surgery/invasive cardiac procedure, aortic dissection (thoracis aorta), traumatic cardiac tamponade, end-stage lung cancer, acute MI, renal failure, systemic lupus
  2. 3 typical features
    1. elevation of intracardiac pressures
    2. limitation of ventricular filling
    3. reduction of cardiac output
  3. Two typical manifestations
    1. pulsus paradoxus – inspiratory drop in systolic blood pressure of at least 10 mm Hg
    2. equalization of diastolic pressures (CVP, pulmonary artery diastolic pressure, PCWP)

Beck’s triad (often seen in cardiac tamponade)

  1. muffled heart tones
    1. JVD
    2. hypotension
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