Cortisol

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  1. Secreted from the adrenal cortex
  2. Cortisol stimulates gluconeogenesis by the liver and stimulates the release and transport of amino acids from muscle to the liver for more gluconeogenesis
  3. Cortisol decreases glucose utilization by the cells increasing the extracellular glucose concentration
  4. Increases serum fatty acid concentrations by mobilizing lipids from storage sites in adipose tissue and enhances oxidation of fatty acids by cells
  5. Endogenous cortisol may play a role in controlling inflammation but the precise mechanism is unknown
  6. Critically ill patients commonly develop adrenal insufficiency manifested by hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypotension refractory to fluids and vasopressors administration;
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