Glial membrane

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  1. Oligodendrocytes
    1. form and maintain myelin sheaths in the CNS
    2. second most vulnerable cell to anoxic insults after neurons
    3. almost entirely post-mitotic
  2. Astrocytes
    1. highly permeable to K and become depolarized if the extracellular concetration of K increases; also maintains proper pH
    2. thought to take up extracellular K during intense neuronal activity and therefore buffer the K concentration in the extracellular space
    3. also thought to take up neurotransmitters and thus regulate extracellular concentrations of neurotransmitters; detoxifies ammonia
    4. respond to noxious insult with cytoplasmic swelling, accumulation of glycogen, fibrillar proliferation within the cytoplasm, and cell multiplication
  3. microglia
    1. phagocytic cells that form part of the nervous system’s defense against infection and injury
    2. derived from blood monocytes
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