Growth factors

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bind cell surface receptors such as tyrosine kinase; may stimulate intracellular second messengers via phosphorylation or change nuclear gene transcription

  1. platelet derived growth factor
    1. responsible for maintaining progenitor cells of the oligodendrocytes and astrocytes; Remember: Platelet and Progenitor
  2. ciliary neurotrophic factor
    1. initiates astrocyte differentiation along with factors from mesenchymal cells
  3. insulin growth factor (IGF)
    1. regulates both inflammatory events and neurodegenerative disorders
    2. IGF-1 may provide a neuroprotective effect
  4. Glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)
    1. has a positive effect on fetal dopamine neurons grown in culture and is used in animal models of Parkinson’s disease
  5. fibroblast growth factor
    1. may provide a neuroprotective effect
  6. nerve growth factor
    1. involved in the survival and differentiation of sensory and sympathetic neurons; may also have neuroprotective function
    2. provides trophic support to nociceptors
    3. Remember: neuroprotectants = IGF-1, fibroblast and nerve growth factors
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