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  1. Hyperparathyroidism is a condition characterized by (HPT)is caused by a disordewr of the parathyroid glands ( primary HPT) or hyper-reactivity of the parathyroid glands ( secondary HPT) is caused by other disease such as renal failure.
  2. Most common cause of hypercalcemia in nonhospitalized patients
  3. Dianosis: elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  4. Signs: renal stones, bone disease, peptic ulcer, fatigue, delirium coma (Remember: painful bones, renal stones, abdominal groans, and psychic moans)
  5. With hypercalcemic crisis see muscular weakness, nausea and vomiting, weight loss, fatigue, lethargy and drowsiness, confusion, abdominal pain, bone pain, short QT interval, absent ST segment
  6. Treatment of severe hypercalcemia: NaCl fluid, furosemide, calcimimetics (secondary HPT); parathyroid gland surgical removal
  7. Other causes of hypercalcemia: bone metastases, solid tumors, multiple myeloma, lymphoma, sarcoidosis, thiazide diuretics
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