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- Anterior displacement of C2 on C2 and/or
- Angulation at this level (1)
- Children up to age 10.
- On lateral C- spine after trauma.
- Up to age 10: flex/ ex are centered at C2-3 moves down to C4-5 or C5-6 after age 10. (2)
- C2 normally moves forward on C3 to 2-3 mm in peds. (2)
- Head is flexed, displacement expected- exacerbated by spasm. (1, 2)
- Pain not uncommon. (3 )
- Pseuosubluxation corrected when head was in true neutral position.
- Treat patient for soft- tissue injury and not subluxation.
1. Bailey DK. The normal cervical spine in infants and children. Radiology. 1952;59:712-719
2. Townsend EH, Jr., Rowe ML. Mobility of the upper cervical spine in health and disease. Pediatrics. 1952;10:567-574
3. Jacobson G, Bleeker HH. Pseudosubluxation of the axis in children. Am J Roentgenol. 1959:472-481